Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi Province, called “Jinyang” in ancient times or “Jin” for short, is an ancient city with a history of 2,500 years. It was initially established in 497 B.C. in the Spring and Autumn Period (770—475 B.C.), called as Jinyang city. In the early Warring States Period (475—221 B.C.), it was the capital of Zhao State . During the Qin Dynasty (221—206 B.C.), it was one of 36 prefectures in the whole country. During the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.—24 A .D.), it was called Binzhou and was one of 13 states in the whole country, which was origin of Taiyuan named as Binzhou. Before the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420—589), such as Former Zhao, Later Yan, Former Yan, Former Qin and Northern Qi States, all chose Taiyuan as capital. During the Sui Dynasty (581—618), Jinyang was the third largest city after Chang'an and Luoyang in the whole country. Jinyang was the birthplace of Tang Dynasty (618—907) and was designated as Bei capital. Jinyang of Bei capital, Chang'an of Jing capital and Luoyang of Dong capital all were called “Three Capitals”. During the Five Dynasties (907 -960), Taiyuan was the capital of Later Tang (923 -936), Later Jin (936-947), Later Han (947- 950) and Northern Han (951 -979). In the history of more than 2,000 years, Taiyuan has always been a military fortress town in North China, enjoying the reputation of “controlling mountains and rivers, crouching on heaven's shoulder and back”. A famous poet Guo Moruo eulogized Taiyuan that “Look Taiyuan from a distance, how grand and magnificent it is”. In the Qing Dynasty (1636- 1911 ), Taiyuan had developed to a key city in commercial and handicraft industries in north China. In the period of the Republic of China (1912—1949), Taiyuan was the municipality under the direct jurisdiction of Shanxi Province.